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Asymmetry

asymmetry
asymmetry

A grid used for page layout that is the same on both the recto and verso pages. Asymmetric grids typically introduce a bias towards one side of the page, usually the left, as pictured above. The additional margin space can be used for notes and captions.

If you understand symmetry then you are on your way to understanding asymmetry. Asymmetry exists when the two halves of something do not match or are unequal. The American flag is an example of asymmetry.

Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection). Symmetry is an important property of both physical and abstract systems and it may be displayed in precise terms or in more aesthetic terms. The absence of violation symmetry that are either expected or desired can have important consequences for a system.

 

ascender-descender

Ascender & Descender

The parts of a letter that extend above the X-height (ascender) or below the baseline (descender).

In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a latin-derivered alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than font’s X-height.

Ascender, together with descenders, increase the recognizability of words. For this reason, many situations that require high legibility such as road signs avoid using solely capital letters, the all caps style.

Studies made at the start of the construction of the British motorway network concluded that words with mixed-case letters were much easier to read than “all-caps” and a special font was designed for motorway signs. These then became universal across the U.K.

In many fonts intended for body text, such as Bembo and Garamond, ascenders rise the cap height of the capital letters.